DNA was extracted from 6-year-old ancient cow bone to detect nuclear and mitochondrial markers.
DNA analysis of human and animal skeletal remains provide vast amounts of insight for evolutionary, archeological, medical,
and forensic studies. Bone structure has proven successful in housing varying amounts of genomic and mitochondrial DNA,
long after the soft tissues have degraded.  While osseous tissues retain DNA longer than the soft tissues of the body, nuclear
DNA and mitochondrial DNA found in bone are both shown to degrade exponentially at fluctuating rates depending on their
post-mortem time interval and the environmental conditions which they are exposed to.  This degradation pattern invokes
urgency for processing samples upon their retrieval, in order to mitigate as much genetic degradation as possible once in
the lab. The current methodologies for the extraction of genetic material from aged bones involve multiple degradation
procedure options to expose the genetic material for extraction. These methods require exposing the material to aggressive
demineralizing and denaturing chemical buffers such as EDTA and DTT for prolonged periods, with some requiring up to 80
hours of incubation in these chemical baths.  Other methodologies rely extensively on commercial based purification kits
and multiple rounds of PCR prior to reaching a workable quantity of purified DNA.  Yet others, claim that multiple rounds
of mechanical disruption of the sample in conjunction with demineralization treatments will yield high working quantities of
extracted DNA. [5,6]
The method described herein uses a combination of chemical treatments and mechanical disruption to extract and amplify
DNA from fossilized Bos taurus bone. The bone sample was obtained from the foothills of Northern Alabama as seen in Figure
1, where it sat exposed to the elements in natural conditions for approximately 6 years prior to excavation. This publication will
attempt to address one of the major challenges facing post-mortem DNA extraction techniques; the limited yield of genetic
recovery from aging bone, while maintaining an efficient timeline of recovery to prevent further degradation upon retrieval of
the specimen. [2,3,4]
DNA and protein were extracted from rat brain, heart, and small intestines. Proteomic coverage was compared for all tissue types.
There have been many studies of correlating gene and protein expression from single tissue samples1,2,3,4. Clinical samples
can be especially challenging as sample sourcing and quantity are often limited. This is certainly the case for tissue samples of
human origin that represent rare disorders. To make the most of rare tissues an ideal extraction method would be suitable for
extracting a multitude of analytes, including nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules. Furthermore, the method would be
capable of processing multiple samples simultaneously with high reproducibility.
The Bead Ruptor 96, Bead Mill Homogenizer is capable of rapid tissue dissruption via bead milling in 96 well plates, tubes or
cryomilling in stainless steel chambers. Herein, we evaluate the Bead Ruptor 96 for high-throughput tissue dissruption for
the purification of genomic DNA and proteins. Genomic DNA integrity is evaluated, and the protein repertoire is analyzed via
electrophoresis and bottom up semi-quantitative proteomics.
The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of Omni International’s Soil DNA Kit (26-013G/B) to that of Company M’s Soil DNA Isolation Kit in terms of DNA yield and quality.
Molecular analysis of soil DNA offers a direct solution for detecting microorganisms residing in soil and for studying microbial diversity. Isolation of DNA from soils is often challenging because of the presence of many contaminants, like humic acid, that can interfere with the extraction process and are inhibitory to several downstream applications. An ideal DNA extraction method should effectively eliminate inhibitory substances and maximize DNA yields. The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of Omni International’s Soil DNA Kit (26-013G/B) to that of Company M’s Soil DNA Isolation Kit in terms of DNA yield and quality, as well as amplification potential and sensitivity of detection using real-time PCR.